Brain Trauma

April 21, 2018 admin

Medications
Medications to limit secondary damage to the brain immediately after an injury may include:
• Diuretics. These drugs reduce the amount of fluid in tissues and FRANKINCENSE increase urine output. Diuretics, given intravenously to people with traumatic brain injury, help reduce pressure inside the brain.
• Anti-seizure drugs. People who’ve had a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury are at risk of having seizures during the first week after their injury. FRANKINCENSE An anti-seizure drug may be given during the first week to avoid any additional brain damage that might be caused by a seizure. Additional anti-seizure treatments are used only if seizures occur.
Coma-inducing drugs. Doctors sometimes use drugs to put people into temporary comas because a comatose brain needs less oxygen to function. CALAMUS This is especially helpful if blood vessels, compressed by increased pressure in the brain, are unable to deliver the usual amount of nutrients and oxygen to brain cells.

Brain damage
Damage to different areas of the brain can have varied effects on memory. The temporal lobes, on the sides of the brain, contain the hippocampus and amygdala, and therefore have a lot to do with memory transition and formation. Patients who have had injury to this area have experienced problems creating new long-term memories. For example, the most studied individual in the history of brain research, HM, retained his previously stored long-term memory as well as functional short-term memory, but was unable to remember anything after it was out of his short-term memory.[2] A patient whose fornix was damaged bilaterally suffered severe anterograde amnesia but no effect on any other forms of memory or cognition.[3] In the fictional case of a patient with a cherry-sized tumor pressing on the temporal lobe of his brain, he temporarily suffered total retrograde amnesia, even after surgery was performed to remove the tumor.[4] However, with time, he was not only able to remember everything starting after the surgery, but childhood memories, up to age 12, all returned with clarity.

Causes
Brain injuries occur due to a very wide range of conditions, illnesses, and injuries. Possible causes of widespread brain damage include birth hypoxia,[4] prolonged hypoxia (shortage of oxygen), poisoning by teratogens (including alcohol), infection, and neurological illness. Brain tumors increase intracranial pressure, causing brain damage. Chemotherapy can cause brain damage to the neural stem cells and oligodendrocyte cells that produce myelin. Common causes of focal or localized brain damage are physical trauma (traumatic brain injury, stroke, aneurysm, surgery, other neurological disorder), and poisoning from heavy metals including mercury and its compounds of lead. Vascular disorders of the brain disrupt the flow of blood to the brain, resulting in a lesion called an infarct. Vascular disorders of the brain include thrombosis, embolisms, angiomas, aneurysms, and cerebral arteriosclerosis.
Brain lesions are sometimes intentionally inflicted during neurosurgery, such as the carefully placed brain lesion used to treat epilepsy and other brain disorders. These lesions are induced by excision or by electric shocks (electrolytic lesions) to the exposed brain or commonly by infusion of excitotoxins to specific areas.
Complications
By Mayo Clinic Staff

Several complications can occur immediately or soon after a traumatic brain injury. Severe injuries increase the risk of a greater number of complications and more-severe complications.
Altered consciousness
Moderate to severe traumatic brain injury can result in prolonged or permanent changes in a person’s state of consciousness, awareness or responsiveness. Different states of consciousness include:
• Coma. A person in a coma is unconscious, unaware of anything and unable to respond to any stimulus. This results from widespread damage to all parts of the brain. After a few days to a few weeks, a person may emerge from a coma or enter a vegetative state.
• Vegetative state. Widespread damage to the brain can result in a vegetative state. Although the person is unaware of his or her surroundings, he or she may open his or her eyes, make sounds, respond to reflexes, or move.
It’s possible that a vegetative state can become permanent, but often individuals progress to a minimally conscious state.
• Minimally conscious state. A minimally conscious state is a condition of severely altered consciousness but with some evidence of self-awareness or awareness of one’s environment. It is often a transitional state from a coma or vegetative condition to greater recovery.
• Locked-in syndrome. A person in a locked-in state is aware of his or her surroundings and awake, but he or she isn’t able to speak or move. The person may be able to communicate with eye movement or blinking.
This state results from damage limited to the lower brain and brainstem. This rarely occurs after trauma and is more commonly due to a stroke in that area of the brain.
• Brain death. When there is no measurable activity in the brain and the brainstem, this is called brain death. In a person who has been declared brain dead, removal of breathing devices will result in cessation of breathing and eventual heart failure. Brain death is considered irreversible.
• Seizures
Some people with traumatic brain injury will have seizures within the first week. Some serious injuries may result in recurring seizures, called post-traumatic epilepsy.
Fluid buildup
Cerebrospinal fluid may build up in the spaces in the brain (cerebral ventricles) of some people who have had traumatic brain injuries, causing increased pressure and swelling in the brain.
Infections
Skull fractures or penetrating wounds can tear the layers of protective tissues (meninges) that surround the brain. This can enable bacteria to enter the brain and cause infections. An infection of the meninges (meningitis) could spread to the rest of the nervous system if not treated.
Blood vessel damage
Several small or large blood vessels in the brain may be damaged in a traumatic brain injury. This damage could lead to a stroke, blood clots or other problems.
Nerve damage
Injuries to the base of the skull can damage nerves that emerge directly from the brain (cranial nerves). Cranial nerve damage may result in:
• Paralysis of facial muscles
• Damage to the nerves responsible for eye movements, which can cause double vision
• Damage to the nerves that provide sense of smell
• Loss of vision
• Loss of facial sensation
• Swallowing problems
Intellectual problems
Many people who have had a significant brain injury will experience changes in their thinking (cognitive) skills. Traumatic brain injury can result in problems with many skills, including:
Cognitive problems
• Memory
• Learning
• Reasoning
• Speed of mental processing
• Judgment
• Attention or concentration
Executive functioning problems
• Problem-solving
• Multitasking
• Organization
• Decision-making
• Beginning or completing tasks

Communication problems
Language and communications problems are common following traumatic brain injuries. These problems can cause frustration, conflict and misunderstanding for people with a traumatic brain injury, as well as family members, friends and care providers.
Communication problems may include:
Cognitive problems
• Difficulty understanding speech or writing
• Difficulty speaking or writing
• Inability to organize thoughts and ideas
• Trouble following conversations
Social problems
• Trouble with turn taking or topic selection
• Problems with changes in tone, pitch or emphasis to express emotions, attitudes or subtle differences in meaning
• Difficulty deciphering nonverbal signals
• Trouble reading cues from listeners
• Trouble starting or stopping conversations
• Inability to use the muscles needed to form words (dysarthria)
Behavioral changes
People who’ve experienced brain injury often experience changes in behaviors. These may include:
• Difficulty with self-control
• Lack of awareness of abilities
• Risky behavior
• Inaccurate self-image
• Difficulty in social situations
• Verbal or physical outbursts
Emotional changes
Emotional changes may include:
• Depression
• Anxiety
• Mood swings
• Irritability
• Lack of empathy for others
• Anger
• Insomnia
• Changes in self-esteem
Sensory problems
Problems involving senses may include:
• Persistent ringing in the ears
• Difficulty recognizing objects
• Impaired hand-eye coordination
• Blind spots or double vision
• A bitter taste, a bad smell or difficulty smelling
• Skin tingling, pain or itching
• Trouble with balance or dizziness

Degenerative brain diseases
A traumatic brain injury may increase the risk of diseases that result in the gradual degeneration of brain cells and gradual loss of brain functions, though this risk cannot yet be determined with any certainty for an individual. These include:
• Alzheimer’s disease, which primarily causes the progressive loss of memory and other thinking skills
• Parkinson’s disease, a progressive condition that causes movement problems, such as tremors, rigidity and slow movements
• Dementia pugilistica — most often associated with repetitive blows to the head in career boxing — which causes symptoms of dementia and movement problems

Depression is a mood disorder that causes a persistent feeling of sadness and loss of interest. Also called major depressive disorder or clinical depression, it affects how you feel, think and behave and can lead to a variety of emotional and physical problems. You may have trouble doing normal day-to-day activities, and sometimes you may feel as if life isn’t worth living.
More than just a bout of the blues, depression isn’t a weakness and you can’t simply “snap out” of it. Depression may require long-term treatment. But don’t get discouraged. Most people with depression feel better with medication, psychological counseling or both.
Although depression may occur only one time during your life, usually people have multiple episodes of depression. During these episodes, symptoms occur most of the day, nearly every day and may include:
• Feelings of sadness, tearfulness, emptiness or hopelessness
• Angry outbursts, irritability or frustration, even over small matters
• Loss of interest or pleasure in most or all normal activities, such as sex, hobbies or sports
• Sleep disturbances, including insomnia or sleeping too much
• Tiredness and lack of energy, so even small tasks take extra effort
• Changes in appetite — often reduced appetite and weight loss, but increased cravings for food and weight gain in some people
• Anxiety, agitation or restlessness
• Slowed thinking, speaking or body movements
• Feelings of worthlessness or guilt, fixating on past failures or blaming yourself for things that aren’t your responsibility
• Trouble thinking, concentrating, making decisions and remembering things
• Frequent or recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts or suicide
• Unexplained physical problems, such as back pain or headaches
For many people with depression, symptoms usually are severe enough to cause noticeable problems in day-to-day activities, such as work, school, social activities or relationships with others. Other people may feel generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why.
• Biological differences. People with depression appear to have physical changes in their brains. The significance of these changes is still uncertain, but may eventually help pinpoint causes.IQ PLUS will help.
• Brain chemistry. Neurotransmitters are naturally occurring brain chemicals that likely play a role in depression. Recent research indicates that changes in the function and effect of these neurotransmitters and how they interact with neurocircuits involved in maintaining mood stability may play a significant role in depression and its treatment.
• IQ Plus will help with these.
• Hormones. Changes in the body’s balance of hormones may be involved in causing or triggering depression. Hormone changes can result with pregnancy and during the weeks or months after delivery (postpartum) and from thyroid problems, menopause or a number of other conditions.
• IQ PLUS will help with this.
Inherited traits. Depression is more common in people whose blood relatives also have this condition. Researchers are trying to find genes that may be involved in causing depression.

Although depression may occur only one time during your life, usually people have multiple episodes of depression. During these episodes, symptoms occur most of the day, nearly every day and may include:
• Feelings of sadness, tearfulness, emptiness or hopelessness
• Angry outbursts, irritability or frustration, even over small matters
• Loss of interest or pleasure in most or all normal activities, such as sex, hobbies or sports
• Sleep disturbances, including insomnia or sleeping too much
• Tiredness and lack of energy, so even small tasks take extra effort
• Changes in appetite — often reduced appetite and weight loss, but increased cravings for food and weight gain in some people
• Anxiety, agitation or restlessness
• Slowed thinking, speaking or body movements
• Feelings of worthlessness or guilt, fixating on past failures or blaming yourself for things that aren’t your responsibility
• Trouble thinking, concentrating, making decisions and remembering things
• Frequent or recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal thoughts, suicide attempts or suicide
• Unexplained physical problems, such as back pain or headaches

For many people with depression, symptoms usually are severe enough to cause noticeable problems in day-to-day activities, such as work, school, social activities or relationships with others. Other people may feel generally miserable or unhappy without really knowing why.

Depression symptoms in children and teens
Common signs and symptoms of depression in children and teenagers are similar to those of adults, but there can be some differences.
• In younger children, symptoms of depression may include sadness, irritability, clinginess, worry, aches and pains, refusing to go to school, or being underweight.
• In teens, symptoms may include sadness, irritability, feeling negative and worthless, anger, poor performance or poor attendance at school, feeling misunderstood and extremely sensitive, using drugs or alcohol, eating or sleeping too much, self-harm, loss of interest in normal activities, and avoidance of social interaction.
Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can demonstrate irritability without sadness or loss of interest. However, major depression can occur with ADHD.
Depression symptoms in older adults
Depression is not a normal part of growing older, and it should never be taken lightly. Unfortunately, depression often goes undiagnosed and untreated in older adults, and they may feel reluctant to seek help. Symptoms of depression may be different or less obvious in older adults, such as:
• Memory difficulties or personality changes
• Physical aches or pain
• Fatigue, loss of appetite, sleep problems, aches or loss of interest in sex — not caused by a medical condition or medication
• Often wanting to stay at home, rather than going out to socialize or doing new things
• Suicidal thinking or feelings, especially in older men